One of the goals believers want to reach is entering paradise, because the Quran commands people to race to enter paradise. “Be quick in the race for forgiveness your Lord, and for a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous” (Al-i Imran 3/133).
Who has gained Paradise will be apparent in the afterlife, but Allah promised it to the Companions while they were still in this world.
“Not equal among you are those who spent (freely) and fought before the Victory, (with those who did so later). Those are higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards. But to all has God promised a goodly (reward). And God is well acquainted with all that ye do” (Al-Hadid, 57/10).
As is clearly seen in this verse, Allah promises Heaven to all the Companions. Just as the Companions, who had many admirable traits, were given the good news of Paradise in general, there are also those who were promised Heaven individually while here on earth. The term Ashara Mubashara (the ten who were promised Paradise) designates those who were given these glad tidings by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) while they were living in this world. In addition to the term “Ashara Mubashara,” the phrase with the same meaning – “al-Mubashara bil-Jannah” – was also used.
They are: Abu Bakr (634), Umar (643), Uthman (655), Ali (660), Talha (656), Zubayr (656), Abdurrahman ibn Awf (652), Sa’d (674), Said ibn Zayd (671), Abu Ubaydah (639). The names of these Companions were mentioned in hadith and were, thus, fixed. Generally, when the Companions of the Prophet, particularly the Noble Companions, are evaluated, it will be seen that this situation is very natural in respect to general Islamic principles.
Some common traits of the Ashara Mubashara:
- All became Muslim in the early years of Islam.
- They made great service to the Prophet and the Islamic cause.
- They migrated.
- They participated in the battle of Badr.
- They swore allegiance to the Prophet at Hudaybiya.
- There are many narrations in hadith sources regarding their virtues.
- Sources of sound hadiths with narrations on these Companions.