All praise is due to Allaah, Who has endowed His servants with blessed times, and guided whomever He wills to make use of them, and diverted from them whomever He wills, of those who were given to loss and regret. I testify that there is no god but Allaah, Who has no partners. He is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Bountiful, the Generous, and the Openhanded. I testify that Muhammad is Allaah’s servant and Messenger, the best of all mankind. May Allaah bless him, his family, Companions and those who follow them on the right path, until the Day of Resurrection.
O people! Fear Allaah and make use of the times of blessings by doing righteous deeds, and be careful not to miss the chance of doing them, lest you should regret it.
Brothers! If one cannot draw spiritual benefit during this month (Ramadhaan), then in what other month can he find benefit? If one does not turn in repentance to his Lord during this month, then at what other time will he do so? If one slackens from doing good deeds now, then when will he do them? You should hasten to seize the opportunity in this month, before it is too late! You should preserve your souls from the ways of misery and destruction.
The blessed month is waning; its precious days and nights are approaching their end. So try to utilize the remaining period by doing good deeds and repenting to Allaah. All is well that ends well. So, you have to make your deeds at the end of this month as good as you can. Two-thirds of the month of Ramadhaan is over and one-third, which is the best of all the three parts, still remains. Exert your efforts during these ten days by spending in charity, doing righteous deeds and offering optional night prayer, submitting yourselves to Allaah, hoping for His good reward and seeking protection from His punishment. Allaah said which means, “And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad) concerning Me – indeed I am near. I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me. So let them respond to Me (by obedience) and believe in Me that they may be rightly guided.” (Al-Baqarah: 186).
Our Lord descends each night to the sky of the earth when the final third of the night remains. He offers His slaves out of His generosity, saying, “Who is saying a prayer to Me, that I may answer it? Who is asking something of Me, that I may give it to him? Who is asking forgiveness of Me, that I may forgive him?” (Bukhaari & Muslim)
In the last ten days of Ramadhaan, there is Laylat Al–Qadr (the Night of Revelation) in which every precise matter of wisdom is made distinct and all events of the coming year are decreed. It is on this night that angels descend from the heavens and blessings become abundant. Whoever prays its nights, believing in it, and hoping for its reward from Allaah, Allaah will forgive all his previous sins. Whoever misses this night and deprives himself of its good; he is to blame. Allaah did not specify its order among the ten nights so that people may exert their utmost efforts during all ten days in worship, performing optional night prayer, reciting the Holy Qur’aan and doing righteous deeds. This is also a means of distinction between those who are active in devotion and those who are not. If Laylat Al-Qadr were identified, many people would have limited themselves to devotion on that night only, neglecting other nights. There would also be no criteria for evaluation between the hardworking people and the lazy ones.
So, seek the reward of Laylat Al-Qadr by doing good deeds consistently and sincerely. Ask Allaah for a share of His reward and to protect you from coming out of Ramadhaan empty-handed.
If you hear or recite a Qur’aanic verse that mentions His mercy, ask Allaah to provide you from His bounties. When you hear or recite a Qur’aanic verse that contains a warning, ask Allaah’s protection from His punishment. Utter glorifications of Allaah many times in your Rukoo’ (bowing) and make many supplications in your Sajdah (prostration), as a Muslim is nearest to Allaah when he is in prostration. A person may supplicate Allaah for himself, his parents, children, relatives and all those who are dear to him from among the Muslims. Prolong the Qiyaam(standing) after rising from Rukoo’ (bowing) and the Jalsah (sitting) after rising from Sajdah (prostration), so that you may maintain an equilibrium among all the positions of Salaah. The standing after the rising from Rukoo’ (bowing) is a stance of praising Allaah, so utter many greetings, praises and extolments of Allaah in it. The sitting position that is between the twoSajdah (prostrations) is a stance of supplicating Allaah for forgiveness, so ask Allaah’s forgiveness therein.
You may start your Qiyaam (the optional night Prayers) with two short Rak’ahs, because Shaytaan (Satan) ties three knots at the back of your head when you sleep, and he seals each of them saying, ‘You have a long night ahead, so sleep.’ If you wake up and remember Allaah, a knot is untied. If you purify yourself then another knot is undone and if you pray, the third one also gets unknotted.
If any one of you goes to the mosque and the prayer has commenced, he should join the congregation with the Imaam rather than praying two Rak’ahs ahead of the congregation, as joining the congregation takes priority in this case.
Some people leave a gap in the first line, so that the Mu’athin (person calling for prayer), or one who recites Qur’aan, may fill it after the commencement of prayer. This is not in line with the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) Sunnah, since filling the gaps in the ranks of worshippers and settling the rows is an obligation. After the establishment of prayer, the Mu’athin or the reciter may stand at the place where the row of the worshippers ends.
Allaah said which means, “Indeed, We sent it (i.e. the Qur’aan) down in the Night of Decree. And what can make you know what is the Night of Decree? The Night of Decree is better than a thousand months. The angels and the Spirit (i.e. Gabriel) descend therein by permission of their Lord for every matter. Peace it is until the emergence of dawn.” (Al-Qadr: 1-5).
Tafsir of Surat Al Qadr (The Night of Power)
Tafsir Ibn Kathir
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious Most Merciful.
1. Verily, We have sent it down in the Night of Al-Qadr
2. And What will make you know what the Night of Al-Qadr is?
3. The Night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months.
4. Therein descend the angels and the Ruh by their Lord’s permission with every matter.
5. There is peace until the appearance of dawn.
[Surah Al Qadr]
The Virtues of the Night of Al-Qadr (the Decree)
Allah informs that He sent the Quran down during the Night of Al-Qadr, and it is a blessed night, about which Allah says,
We sent it down on a blessed night [44:3]
This is the Night of Al-Qadr and it occurs during the month of Ramadan. This is as Allah says,
The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Quran [2:185]
Ibn Abbas and others have said, “Allah sent the Quran so all at one time from the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz) to the House of Might (Baytul-Izzah), which is in the heaven of this world. Then it came down in parts to the Messenger of Allah (saws) based upon the incidents that occurred over a period of twenty-three years.”
Then Allah magnified the status of the Night of Al-Qadr, which He chose for the revelation of the Mighty Quran, by His saying,
And What will make you know what the Night of Al-Qadr is?
The Night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months.
[At-Tabari 24:531, 532, and Al-Qurtubi 20:130]
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “When Ramadan would come, the Messenger of Allah (saws) would say,
“Verily the month of Ramadan has come to you all. It is a blessed month, which Allah has obligated you all to fast. During it the gates of Paradise are opened, the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are shackled. In it there is a night that is better than one thousand months. Whoever is deprived of its good, then he has truly been deprived”
[Ahmad 2:230. There is witness for this narration from the Hadith of Anas bin Malik in the book of the Sunan.] An-Nasai recorded this same Hadith. [An-Nasai 4:129]
Aside from the fact that worship during the Night of Al-Qadr is equivalent to worship performed for a period of one thousand months, it is also confirmed in the Two Sahihs from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said,
“Whoever stands (in prayer) during the Nigh of Al-Qadr with faith and expecting reward (from Allah), he will be forgiven for his previous sins.” [Fath Al-Bari 4:294, and Muslim 1:253]
The Descent of the Angels and the Decree for Every Good during the Night of Al-Qadr
Therein descend the angels and the Ruh by their Lord’s permission with every matter.
meaning, the angels descend in abundance during the Night of Al-Qadr due to its abundant blessings. The angels descend with the descending of blessings and mercy, just as they descend when the Quran is recited, they surround the circles of Dhikr (remembrance of Allah) and they lower their wings with true respect for the student of knowledge.
In reference to Ar-Ruh, it is said that here it means the angel Jibril. therefore, the wording of the Ayah is a method of adding the name of the distinct object (in this case Jibril) separate from the general group (in this case the angels).
Concerning Allah’s statement,
with every matter.
Mujahid said, “Peace concerning every matter.” Sa’id bin Mansur said, Isa bin Yunus told us that Al’mash narrated to them that Mujahid said concerning Allah’s statement,
There is peace
“It is security in which Shaytan cannot do any evil or any harm.” Qatadah and others have said, “The matters are determined during it, and the times of death and provisions are measured out (i.e., decided) during it.” Allah says,
Therein is decreed every matter of decree [44:4]
Then Allah says,
There is peace until the appearance of dawn.
Sa’id bin Mansur said, “Hushaym narrated to us on the sincerity of Abu Ishaq, who narrated that Ash-Sha’bi said concerning Allah’s statement,
With every matter, there is peace until the appearance of dawn.
“The angels giving the greetings of peace during the Night of Al-Qadr to the people in the Masjids until the coming of Fajr (dawn).”
Qatadah and Ibn Zayd both said concerning Allah’s statement,
There is Peace
“This means all of it is good and there is no evil in it until the coming of Fajr (dawn).”
Specifying the Night of Decree and its Signs
This is supported by what Imam Ahmad recorded from Ubadah bin As-Samit that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said,
“The Night of Al-Qadr occurs during the last ten (nights). Whoever stands for them (in prayer) seeking their reward, then indeed Allah will forgive his previous sins and his latter sins. It is an odd night: the ninth or the seventh, or the fifth, or the third or the last night (of Ramadan).“
The Messenger of Allah (saws) also said,
“Verily, the sign of the Night of Al-Qadr is that it is pure and glowing as if there were a bright, tranquil, calm moon during it. It is not cold, nor is it hot, and no shooting star is permitted until morning. Its sign is that the sun appears on the morning following it smooth having no rays on it, just like the moon on a full moon night. Shaytan is not allowed to come out with it (the sun) on that day.” [Ahmad 5:324. It is a Mursal narration.]
This chain of narration is good. In its text there is some oddities and in some of its wordings there are things that are objectionable.
Abu Dawud mentioned a section in his Sunan that he titled, “Chapter: Clarification that the Night of Al-Qadr occurs during every Ramadan.” Then he recorded that Abdullah bin Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah (saws) was asked about the Night of Al-Qadr while I was listening and he said,
“It occurs during every Ramadan.” [Abu Dawud 2:111. This narration is considered Mawquf.]
The men of this chain of narration are all reliable, but Abu Dawud said that Shu’bah and Sufyan both narrated from Ishaq and they both considered it to be a statement of the Companion (Ibn Umar, and thus not the statement of the Prophet (saws) ).
It has been reported that Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri said, “The Messenger of Allah (saws) performed Itikaf during the first ten nights of Ramadan and we performed Itikaf with him. Then Jibril came to him and said, ‘That which you are seeking is front of you.’ So the Prophet (saws) performed Itikaf during the middle ten days of Ramadan and we also performed Itikaf with him. Then Jibril came to him and said; ‘That which you are seeking is ahead of you.’ so the Prophet (saws) stood up and gave a sermon on the morning of the twentieth of Ramadan and he said,
“Whoever performed Itikaf with me, let him come back (for Itikaf again), for verily I saw the Night of Al-Qadr, and I was caused to forget it, and indeed it is during the last ten (nights). It is during an odd night and I saw myself as if I were prostrating in mud and water.”
The roof of the Masjid was made of dried palm-tree leaves and we did not see anything (i.e. clouds) in the sky. But then a patch of wind-driven clouds came and it rained. So the Prophet (saws) lead us in prayer until we saw the traces of mud and water on the forehead of the Messenger of Allah (saws), which confirmed his dream.”
In one narration it adds that this occurred on the morning of the twenty-first night (meaning the next morning). They both (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) recorded it in the Two Sahihs. [Fath Al Bari 2:329, 318, and Muslim 2:824]
Ash-Shafii said, “This Hadith is the most authentic of what has been reported.” It has also been said that it is on the twenty-third night due to a Hadith narrated from Abdullah bin Unays in Sahih Muslim. [Muslim 2:827]
It has also been reported that it is on the twenty-fifth night due to what Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said,
“Seek it in the last ten (nights) of Ramadan. In the ninth it still remains in the seventh it still remains, in the fifth it still remains.” [Fath Al-Bari 4:306]
Many have explained this Hadith to refer to the odd nights, and this is the most apparent and most popular explanation. It has also been said that it occurs on the twenty-seventh night because of what Muslim recorded in his Sahih from Ubay bin Ka’b that the Messenger of Allah (saws) mentioned that it was on the twenty-seventh night.
Imam Ahmad recorded from Zirr that he asked Ubayy bin Ka’b “O Abu Al-Mundhir! Verily, your brother Ibn Masud says whoever stands for prayer (at night) the entire year, will catch the Night of Al-Qadr.” He (Ubayy) said, “May Allah have mercy upon him. Indeed he knows that it is the twenty-seventh night.” Then he swore by Allah. Zirr then said, “How do you know that?” Ubayy replied “by a sign or an indication that he (the Prophet (saws) ) informed us of. It rises that next day having no rays on it – meaning the sun.”
[Ahmad 5:130] Muslim has also recorded it. [Muslim 2:828]
It has been said that it is the night of the twenty-ninth. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded from ‘Ubadah bin As-Samit that he asked the Messenger of Allah (saws) about the Night of Decree and he replied,
“Seek it in Ramadan in the last ten nights. For verily, it is during the odd nights, the twenty-first, or the twenty-third, or the twenty-fifth, or the twenty-seventh, or the twenty-ninth, or during the last night.” [Ahmad 5:318 There is a deficiency in this chain of narration, but the meanings are found with others.]
Imam Ahmad also recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said about the Night of Al-Qadr,
“Verily, it is during the twenty-seventh or the twenty-ninth night. And verily, the angels who are on the earth during that night are more numerous than the number of pebbles.”
Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith and there is nothing wrong with its chain of narration.
At-Tirmidhi recorded from Abu Qilabah that he said, “the Night of Al-Qadr moves around (i.e., from year to year) throughout the last ten nights.” This view that At-Tirmidhi mentions from Abu Qilabah has also been recorded by Malik, Ath-Thawri, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ishaq bin Rahuyah, Abu Thar, Al-Muzani, Abu Bakr bin Khuzaymah and others. It has also been related from Ash-Shafi’i and Al-Qadhi reported it from him, and this is most likely. And Allah knows best.
Supplication during the Night of Decree
It is recommended to supplicate often during all times, especially during the month of Ramadan, in the last ten nights, and during the odd nights of it even more so. It is recommended that one say the following supplication a lot:
“O Allah! Verily, you are the Oft-Pardoning, You love to pardon, so pardon me.”
This is due to what Imam Ahmad recorded from Aishah that she said “O Messenger of Allah! If I find the Night of Al-Qadr what should I say?” He (saws) replied,
Say: “O Allah! Verily You are the Oft-Pardoning, You love to pardon, so pardon me.” [Ahmad 6:182]
At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasai and Ibn Majah have all recorded this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said
“This Hadith is Hasan Sahih”. [Tahfat Al-Ahwadhi 9:495, An-Nasai in Al-Kurba 6:218, and Ibn Majah 2:1265]
Al-Hakim recorded it in his Mustadrak (with a different chain of narration) and he said that it is authentic according to the criteria of the two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).
[Al-Hakim 1:530] An Nasai also recorded it. [An-Nasai in Al-Kubra 6:219]
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Laylat Al-Qadr and all praise and blessing are due to Allah.